At this issue I want to present
stuff about Jagadis Chandra Bose, an Indian inventor. "J.C.
Bose was at least 60 years ahead of his time", as Sir Neville
Mott, Nobel Laureate, remarked in 1977. Let's remembered
that great man!
© 1997 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission,
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and
Techniques, December 1997, Vol. 45, No. 12, pp.2267-2273.
Radio Astronomy Observatory(1)
949 N. Cherry Avenue
Tucson, Arizona 85721
Based on material presented
at the IEEE-MTT-S International Microwave Symposium in Denver,
CO, June 8-13, 1997; this appeared in the 1997 IEEE MTT-S International
Microwave Symposium Digest, Volume 2, ISSN 0149-645X,
pp.553-556. The full article was published in the IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, December 1997, Vol. 45, No.
12, pp.2267-2273. This WWW version has
some additional photographs, and color images. Copyright held
by the author and the IEEE.
Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science
Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated
one hundred years ago, J.C. Bose described to the Royal Institution
in London his research carried out in Calcutta at millimeter wavelengths.
He used waveguides, horn antennas, dielectric lenses, various
polarizers and even semiconductors at frequencies as high as 60
GHz; much of his original equipment is still in existence, now
at the Bose Institute in Calcutta. Some concepts from his original
1897 papers have been incorporated into a new 1.3-mm multi-beam
receiver now in use on the NRAO 12 Meter Telescope.
Clerk Maxwell's equations predicting the existence of electromagnetic
radiation propagating at the speed of light were made public in
1865; in 1888 Hertz had demonstrated generation of electromagnetic
waves, and that their properties were similar to those of light
. Before the start of the twentieth century, many of the concepts
now familiar in microwaves had been developed [2,3]:
the list includes the cylindrical parabolic reflector,
dielectric lens, microwave absorbers, the cavity radiator, the
radiating iris and the pyramidal electromagnetic horn. Round,
were used, with experimental development anticipating by several
years Rayleigh's 1896 theoretical solution  for waveguide modes.
Many microwave components in use were quasi-optical - a term first
introduced by Oliver Lodge . Righi in 1897 published a treatise
on microwave optics .
Hertz had used a wavelength
of 66 cm; other post-Hertzian pre-1900 experimenters used
wavelengths well into the short cm-wave region, with Bose in Calcutta
[7,8] and Lebedew in Moscow  independently
performing experiments at wavelengths as short as 5 and 6 mm.
THE RESEARCHES OF J.C. BOSE
Bose [10,11,12] was born in India in
1858. He received his education first in India, until in 1880
he went to England to study medicine at the University of London.
Within a year he moved to Cambridge to take up a scholarship to
study Natural Science at Christ's College Cambridge. One of his
lecturers at Cambridge was Professor Rayleigh, who clearly had
a profound influence on his later work. In 1884 Bose was awarded
a B.A. from Cambridge, but also a B.Sc. from London University.
Bose then returned to India, taking up a post initially as officiating
professor of physics at the Presidency College in