Figure 2 Broom converted
to an optimal capacitive load
So in the theory
there is no any advantage of the broom antenna before another
antenna with a capacitive load.
small metal "broom" was used for discharging of some
parts of electrostatic machines from 19 century. Recently the
metal "broom" are widely used at the end of antenna
mast (that installed on the ground or on a ship), at the end
of jet wings for leaking the static from the jet to the air.
The "broom" discharger looks like a Broom Antenna...
So, what is
can discharge the broom from the antenna?
2. Atmospheric electricity
What are we
know about an atmospheric electricity? Near the ground surface
there is gradient of potential, i.e. strength of the electrostatic
field is near 130 Volts/meter. At height of the human head the
strength of the electrostatic field is near 200 Volts/meter.
However we do not mention the potential because the air is very
good insulator and current going through our body is too small.
The more up the more potential will be. It is come due the follow
effect. Upper layers of the Earth atmosphere are ionized (so
called ionosphere) by the Sun rays. Ionosphere layer has some
conductivity and charged positively (due some process) compare
to the Ground surface. So, mankind lives between two plates
of huge capacitor- one plate is the Ground another plate is
However it is a small ionic current flow down to the Ground. It is very- very small
current. The current density being measured by a high sensitivity
device is several pico- Amperes per
square meter. Scientists do not clear explain the phenomenon.
One of hypothesis says that the current exists due lightning and thunderstorm .
Really, before a thunderstorm the current is increased dramatically
and sometimes we could register the effect visually. It is the
corona discharge- bright glowing at the end of high metal mast,
sometimes the corona charge is going from trees, wooden or metal
cross at the top of churches. Corona discharge is especially bright
in the mountains and in the sea (where the air is especially clear).
Such Corona Discharge had been well known from the very old times,
it was called Saint Elmo's fire.
Saint Elmo's fire
Atmospheric electricity had been studied from 17- century
Lots great scientists (in the US Benjamin Franklin  the inventor of the lightning
rod, in Italy Giovanni Beccaria ,
in Russia- Mihail Lomonosov
and Georg Rihman ). Franklin studied
the effect with help of a metal wire lifted with help of a kite
in the sky.