consisting of two concentric conducting spheres separated by
a dielectric layer to form a monopole radiator for electrostatic
does not give details how "longitudinal electrostatic or
capacitive waves, also called scalar or polarization waves because
of their relationship to the Maxwell wave equations" differ
in their method of propagation from conventional forms of electromagnetic
radiation. It simply states that as the spheres are subject to
voltages of opposite polarity the "outer sphere then appears
as an ideal monopole radiator to the external dielectric medium,
in this case water."
That this design was not effective, according to a report, is due to
the configuration of the radiator. The electric field is confined
to the region between the two conducting spheres. Little energy,
if any, is available to stress the external dielectric medium,
patent for an Underwater Electric Field Communication System,
#3,265,972, issued August 9, 1966 proposes a radiator of a different
configuration and discusses communications by electrostatic induction.
(See Figure 5)
…The antenna system for an electromagnetic emission into space circulates
energy in accordance with the laws governing electrical current
in motion. Since the field strength produced by an antenna is
proportional to the alternating currents circulating in it, its
optimum structural relationships are directed to a reduction of
the total antenna resistance, thus to increase the total current
for a given power input to a radiator.
Further on he adds:
…While a radiator for electromagnetic emission produces its field
strength by the effect of changing currents; the radiator for
electrostatic emission of the type here to be described produces
its field strength by the effect of changing potentials.
By applying a varying potential to the plates of the radiator, charge
of opposite polarity accumulates on the two plates such that a
charge gradient exists in the region between the radiators. The
... a phase displacement of 90 degrees exists the wave of charge potentials
induced by an alternating current signal upon the water ... and
the resulting wave of charge displacements occurring in the water
body between the segments.
The method of propagation, then, is to cause electrical changes in the
two plates resulting in the launching into the medium of sinusoidal
carrier waves - as illustrated by the dotted lines in Figure