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J - Antenna for 160,15 and 10(FM) meters

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ANTENTOP- 02- 2003, # 003

J - Antenna for 160,15 and 10(FM) meters



by Valentin Gvozdev , RU3AEP,




After getting my first amateur license I had to think, what antenna to build for a top-band (160 m), I realized, that conditions are too bad for it. I live in a 7-floor house, which has a roof with a high slope (about 35-40 degrees), which is very dangerous to operate on it. Also, the house is almost completely surrounded by wide streets and electrical wires going along them. After long thinking, I concluded, that there is only one possibility to make an antenna - to hang up a long wire from my roof to the roof of another house. Unfortunately, any dipole-type antenna was unacceptable, because in this case my apartment would have been too far away from the feed point of the antenna, and the condition of right angle (90o) between feeder and antenna itself could not be satisfied. Fortunately, in that time I have read about one very old, but not frequently used antenna - so called Zeppelin-antenna with a matched feeding.




Classical design with an opened line


Actually, this is shortly described in well-known book ("Antennenbuch"), written by DM2ABK (Karl Rothammel), but has been recently developed by Sergey Makarkin (RX3AKT), a radioamateur from Moscow, who has published a good article in "Radio-Design" journal (N2, 1998).


Classical design is presented below (Figure 1). As it can be seen, there is feeder with rather high impedance (~300-600 Ohm), and 1/4-wavelength matching line. From one end, this line is shortened, and here its impedance is just a zero (current is high, but voltage is almost zero). Another end of this line is connected to the long wire, which has length exactly 1/2 wavelength. At this point, the impedance is very high (several kiloohms). That is why, a big voltage exists here during a transmission. This is quite suitable for a wire feeding, because a 1/2-wavelength has high impedance when fed from the end.




Figure 1. Classical Zeppelin-antenna design


The feeder from the transmitter with a specific impedance Rf is connected to the matching line in the point, where impedance of the latter is equal to that of the feeder. Such point is usually located not so far from the shortened end. If everything is done properly, feeder may have any length and SWR is closed to 1:1 in rather narrow band, central frequency of which is determined by the geometrical size of matching line and antenna.


Classical design with a coaxial cable for 160 meters


This design can be used almost without change, but instead of symmetrical feeder a coaxial cable can be used to connect the whole system to the unsymmetrical output of the transmitter (Figure 2). Using of a coaxial cable instead of an open line has one big advantage in contrast with the symmetrical transmission line it is almost insensitive to the environment, weather conditions and can be placed really everywhere.

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