antentopSince2 July

Ham Spirit
Free Choice



Free Antentop Amateur Open Book
Antentop Album
Antentop Survey




Antentop is FREE e-magazine devoted to Antennas and Amateur Radio an

Special page devoted to

The Underwater Communication System

Custom Search


ANTENTOP- 03- 2003, # 004

The Underwater Communication System


... a phase displacement of 90 degrees exists the wave of charge potentials induced by an alternating current signal upon the water ... and the resulting wave of charge displacements occurring in the water body between the segments.17


 The method of propagation, then, is to periodically alternate electrical charges on the two plates that will launch sinusoidal carrier waves into the medium. When one plate is positive, the other will be negative; then the first will be negative and the second positive.  This action, the patent states, will create the sinusoidal waves.


In a detailed analysis of forces involved in this type of transmission Curry shows that radiators with a capacitance of .0053 microfarads operating at 100 kHz with signal generator output of 200 volts coupled with a biasing potential of 1000 volts will produce a force from its charge displacement of 26,500 dynes.18


On the receiving side, Curry states that the charge gradient can be expected to attenuate substantially at even moderate distance from the point of transmission.  As an example he notes that if a signal intensity of 10,600 dynes at the point of transmission is reduced one billion times the "standing wave of the signal energy will therefore be charged with a force differential of 1.06 x 10-5 dynes. Each dipole in his example has a capacitance of .0053 microfarads with a system capacitance of .00265 microfarads.  The voltage developed in the receiving network is .02 volts.  As noted "this is substantially above the minimum requirements of signal intensity for the detection of electrical signal energies."19


This detailed analysis, however, overlooks the important point that electrostatic waves do not propagate into the medium in the same way as electromagnetic waves. In an electromagnetic transmission system, charge is accelerated in an elevated conductor, an antenna, to launch waves omnidirectionally into the air. At a receiver, the electromagnetic waves induce a current in the antenna. The variations in the current are processed by the detection circuitry to replicate the transmitted information.


   In electrostatics, it is not necessary for flux lines to detach from an antenna and close upon themselves to propagate a wave that is received at a distant point.  The transmitter, in Tesla's plan, oscillates the earth's charge and the receiver is connected to that same charge reservoir.   Signals are not launched, but exist as pressure variations in the earth's oscillating electric field. Because the field already exists at the point of transmission and at the point of reception, the propagation characteristics are different from electromagnetic waves.

In addition to the mode of propagation being different, what travels between the transmitter and receiver is different.  In electromagnetic transmission waves are sent out that are picked up by the receiving antenna. These waves induce a current the antenna.  In an electrostatic system a current passes directly between the transmitter and receiver.


This current is the same as that which exists in a capacitor, that is, it is a displacement current.  In a standard inductor-capacitor-resistance circuit, when it is energized and oscillating, it is understood that the current that passes through the conductors is completed through the non-conductor of the capacitor's dielectric through a displacement current.  As charge is changed on one plate of the capacitor, an opposite but equal change in charge is seen on the other plate of the capacitor.  In Tesla's system the transmitter and receiver act as the capacitor plates and what passes between them is a displacement current. 


Displacement current, today, is seen as something of a virtual current, something different from a "real" or conduction current that flows through a wire.  Tesla, however, understood what is meant by an electrical current in the same sense as Maxwell - that "all charge is the residual effect of the polarization of the dielectric"20 and that "the variations of electric displacement evidently constitute electric currents."21 As a Maxwellian, Tesla was correct in describing his transmission system as one using true electric currents.


 Tesla's wireless electrical energy transmission system differed in all three characteristics he claimed - it  was not electromagnetic, it operated through the earth or water, and conveyed electrical energy by a current.  Once Tesla's communication method is better understood as a new branch of electrical science that was started over 100 years ago, it will not only have an impact on terrestrial technology, but will have applications in the future for space communications.


Page 33


30 31 32 33 34



QRP Transceivers and PA from Accessible Parts IP for QRP Antentop Book Radio Antenna Engineering Book Antentop Printed and e- magazines



Just for Fun:

Map IP Address

Thanks for your time!

Last Updated:

August 7, 2016 20:36

Antentop Home Page

Free Antentop Open Book